The medical software of those very important court cases was once prepared to hide many of the box of neutrino physics. In mild of the fast development of curiosity encouraged via new attention-grabbing effects from the sector, greater than half the papers offered listed here are on the topic of the neutrino mass and oscillations, together with atmospheric and sunlight neutrino reviews. Neutrino mass and oscillations may indicate the lifestyles of a mass scale many orders of magnitudes better than provided in present physics and should most likely advisor scientists past the normal version of particle physics.
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Extra resources for Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics
Fifty seven +~176 --0. 07 multi-GeV data. The Super-Kamiokande info were analyzed independently by means of teams, making the opportunity of major biases in facts choice or occasion reconstruction algorithms remote[7,8]. Given the statistical mistakes in R particularly for the sub-GeV pattern, statistical fluctuation can not clarify the deviation of R from cohesion. Assuming that the systematic errors has the gaussian shape, we estimate the likelihood that the saw #/e ratios may be because of statistical fluctuation is under zero. 001% and no more than 1% for sub- and multi-GeV samples, respectively. Zenith attitude distribution The p-like info from Super-Kamiokande convey a powerful up-down asymmetry in zenith attitude (O) whereas no major asymmetry is saw within the e-like facts, see determine 1. For additional analyses, we outline up-down ratio U/D the place U is the variety of upward-going occasions ( - 1 < cos O < -0. 2) and D is the variety of downward-going occasions (0. 2 < cos O < 1). The ratio is predicted to be close to harmony autonomous of flux version for E~ > 1 GeV, above which results as a result Earth's magnetic box on cosmic rays are small. in response to a comparability of effects from our Monte Carlo simulation utilizing diversified flux models[10,9] as inputs, therapy of geomagnetic results leads to an uncertainty of approximately i0. 02 ~- zero. 03 within the anticipated U/D values for e-like and #-like sub-GeV occasions and not more than 4-0. 02 for multi-GeV occasions. those flux calculations don't think the life T. Kajita/Nuclear Physics B (Proc. Suppl. ) seventy seven (1999) 123-132 126 Super-Kamiokande ' MC facts e-like Sub-GeV, <400MeV/c Sub-GeV, >400MeV/r Multi-GeV p-like Sub-GeV, <400MeV/c Sub-GeV, >400MeV/c Multi-GeV (FC+PC) 1. 004-0. 04+0. 03 1. 02=k0. 04• 1. 01=t=0. 06~0. 03 .... . , Kamiokande information 9Q+0. 27 1. ,,,,_o. 22 1. 9n+~ ... 4-0. 03 1 910+~ 1 four- zero. 03 +o 1 :t= zero. 02 zero. 93_o:13 zero. 7~+o. 22 -v_o. 18 1 -2R+0"39 . . . . zero. 30 1. 05:1:0. 03-1-0. 02 1. 03+~ four- zero. 02 1. 00+0. 03:t=0. 02 zero "v"--0. 05 ~+0. o6 :t= zero. 01 zero. 984-0. 03-t-0. 02 vn' ~ -KA+0. 06 "4- zero. 01 =-O. 05 ' 1 . 1~+o. three, ... zero. 24 1. 09+~ 22 18 zero . KR+0. thirteen . . . o. ll desk 2 precis of the up/down ratio, U/D, for e-like and p-like occasions from Super-Kamiokande and Kamiokande. The systematic blunders of the Kamiokande test usually are not proven, yet are just like these of Super-Kamiokande. ''/400 = 4oo/... ,, ~ three hundred L. nine nine, nine . . (1~) I'.... " ' ; ' " " ~ ' - " i " : . . = . "6 2 zero zero L ~ ~ ~ , - - ~ 2 hundred a hundred a hundred i , 0-1 . . . . 0"" ~oo/... . = s~ forty ~ = 20 e~ 0-1 1 =,... r .. ,. nine nine nine / two hundred i/ .... = ~~. nine I zero cosO nine 0-~1 . . . . nine "--;---I ~ nine nine 1 (I . . . . " " " :~ i " ~d) ~"I a hundred zero . i.. :--I'-J -1 nine nine I zero nine l nine i 1 cosO determine 1. Zenith attitude distributions saw in Super-Kamiokande for; (a)sub-GeV e-like, (b)sub-GeV ~u-like, (c)multi-GeV e-like and (d) multi-GeV (FC+PC) p-like occasions. CosO - 1 capacity down-going debris. The histograms with shaded blunders bars convey the MC prediction with their statistical blunders for the no neutrino oscillation case. The dotted histograms indicates the Monte Carlo prediction for v, ~ v~ oscillations with sin 2 20 =1 and Am 2 =2.